2                      1

Seyed Morteza Dibaji, Alireza Seidavi, Leila Asadpour, and Fernando Moreira da Silva

The current experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of a synbiotic (Biomin Imbo) on intestinal microflora of Ross broiler chickens. A total of 200 male chickens were randomly divided into 20 groups of 10 birds each, kept in 20 pens (1.5 × 1 m each), and fed for 42 d at different synbiotic levels. Treatments included (1) a basal diet without synbiotics (control), (2) a basal diet with synbiotic levels proposed by the manufacturer, (3) a basal diet with synbiotic levels 25% lower than those proposed by the manufacturer, (4) a basal diet with synbiotic levels 50% higher than those proposed by the manufacturer, and (5) a basal diet with synbiotic levels 25% higher than those proposed by the manufacturer. At the end of the 42-d feeding period, 1 bird was randomly selected from each experimental unit, humanely euthanized, and the cecum was removed to measure the microbial population. The cecal contents were collected in discharge containers for microbial cultures, and counts were conducted after microbial culture. The addition of the synbiotic reduced Escherichia coli and total coliform populations in the intestines of broiler chickens. Conversely, different levels of probiotic increased the numbers of lactobacilli in the intestine of broiler chickens. Concentrations of the synbiotic higher than the recommended levels in the diet increased the lactic acid bacteria population in the gut of broiler chickens.













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W. A. Awad, K. Ghareeb, S. Abdel-Raheem, and J. Böhm

A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of synbiotic and probiotic on broiler performance, carcass yield, organs weights, and histomorphological measurements of small intestine. Six hundred 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) control, 2) basal diets supplemented with synbiotic (1 kg of Biomin IMBO/ ton of the starter diets and 0.5 kg/ton of the grower diets), 3) basal diets supplemented with probiotic (1 kg of a homofermentative and a heterofermentative Lactobacillus sp./ton of feed). The BW, average daily weight gain, carcass yield percentage, and feed conversion rate were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by the dietary inclusion of the synbiotic compared with the control and probiotic-fed broilers. Moreover, a slight improvement in performance traits was observed in broilers fed the probiotic compared with control birds. The absolute and relative weight of spleen and thymus tended t be greater (P < 0.1) for the probiotic-supplemented group compared with the synbiotic-supplemented group. The relative liver weight was greater (P < 0.05) for probiotic-fed birds compared with synbiotic-fed birds. Additionally, the weight of small intestine was greater for either probiotic- (3.17) or synbiotic-fed birds (3.11) than the controls (2.89). Furthermore, dietary treatments influenced the histomorphological measurements of small intestinal villi. The addition of either probiotic or synbiotic increased (P < 0.05) the villus height: crypt depth ratio and villus height in both duodenum and ileum. The duodenal crypt depth remained unaffected (P > 0.05). However, the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementations compared with control. In conclusion, synbiotic or probiotic displayed a greater efficacy as growth promoters for broilers. Furthermore, the dietary supplementations resulted in an increase in the villus height and crypt depth of intestinal mucosa of broilers. The increase in the vi us height and villus height:crypt depth ratio was associated with improvement of growth performance for both synbiotic and probiotic. This indicates that the synbiotic and probiotic can be used as a growth promoter in broiler diets and can improve the gut health. These products show promising effects as alternatives for antibiotics as ressure to eliminate growth-promotant antibiotic use increases.


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4                      3

Sinsia Bjedov, Mirjana Dukic Stojcic, Lidija Peric, Dragan Zikic, Marina Vukic Vranjes

Use of probiotics can be alternative to antibiotics which are added to food as growth stimulators. Investigation of the effect of probiotics and antibiotics was done on experimental farm ‘’Pustara’’, of the Faculty of Agriculture in Novi Sad. Trial consisted of three groups of chickens in five repetitions. First group was control, second group received probiotic in the water and food, and third group received antibiotic in food. Final body weight was (I) 2179 g, (II) 2190 g and in group (III) 2158 g. In first group, feed conversion was 1,93, mortality 4,27% and production index had value of 257, in second group 1,90, 3,47% mortality and PI 260. In third group, conversion was 1,93, mortality 2,40%, and PI value 265. Obtained results indicate positive effect of probiotic on production results, whereas, contrary to expectations the positive effect of antibiotics was not established.





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Rozbeh Fallah, Sayed Sadra Ale Saheb Fosoul, Hasan Rezaei

The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of synbiotic on performance and serum biochemical parameters of ostrich chicks. Forty eight day-old ostrich chicks were divided into 4 treatments with 4 replicates of 3 ostrich chicks in completely randomized design for 8 weeks. Dietary treatments included basal diet (control) and basal diet with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/kg synbiotic. Feed Intake (FI), body weight (BW) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured during the whole period of the experiment (0-8 wk of age). Additionally, blood samples were taken at the end of the experiment and analyzed for serum biochemical parameters. The results showed that 1 g/kg synbiotic inclusion in the diet significantly improved BW and FCR of the chicks compared to control group (p<0.05). Furthermore, 1.5 g/kg synbiotic substantially increased blood glucose but decreased cholesterol (p<0.05). Serum total protein and uric acid also decreased in the all dietary levels of synbiotic compared to control group (p<0.05). egarding these results, supplementation of 1 g/kg synbiotic appears to be effective on growth performance and serum biochemical parameters of ostrich chicks.

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6                      5

Seyed Mozafar Mehdizadeh, Morteza Peirovi, Hossein Noroozian, Houshang Lotfollahian, and Seyed Abdollah Hosseini

Objectives:An experiment was conducted under completely randomized design to study the comparing effect of different level of Aleo Vera Jelly Powder (AVJP), probiotics and antibiotic on performance, immune response, carcass characteristics and blood biochemistry of broiler chicks.
Materials & Methods:960 thirteen day old Cobb chicks were randomly distributed into five experimental diets with four replicate (based on pens, each replicates consist of 60 and 30 birds) with feed and water ad libitum for 22 days. The experimental diets were as follows: 1-Basal diet (without feed additives), 2-Diets consist of 0.1% AVJP, 3-Diets consist of 0.2% AVJP, 4-Diet consist of antibiotic 20ppm, 5- Diet consist of probiotics 0.1%. Two birds (28 d) from each replicate were selected randomly and blood was collected to study the blood biochemistry and carcass traits.
Results & Conclusion:As the result revealed, feed additives did not affect body weight throughout the experimental period significantly. Numerically, the higher and the lower daily body weight gain were observed in chicks with diets containing probiotics and antibiotics respectively. Improved feed efficiency belonged to diets supplemented with probiotics. Aleo Vera jelly powder (AVJP) improved feed efficiency as compared to control groups. The higher and the lower feed intake showed in diets supplemented with AVJP 0.2% and diets containing probiotics 0.1% respectively. Non- significant higher carcass and live body weight ratio referred to diets containing AVJP 0.1% and control groups respectively. Significantly higher and the lower abdominal fat percentage were observed in chicks consumed AVJP 0.1% and diets included with antibiotics (p<0.05). Aleo vera jelly powder significantly improved immune responses through increasing weight of burs gland (p<0.05). Numerically AVJP increased number of WBC and increased significantly influenza and Newcastle disease titrations (p<0.05). The higher and the lower blood cholesterol were related to the diets supplemented with probiotics nd 0.1% AVJP respectively (p<0.05).

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R. Beltran, G. Schatzmayr, A. Klimitsch, and R. Gruzauskas

The use of probiotics to enhance intestinal health has been studied for many years. Probiotics are defined as viable microorganisms that have a beneficial effect in the prevention and treatment of specific pathologic conditions when consumed. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that benefit the host by selectively stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria in the colon. Cell wall fragments or used to prevent pathogen adherence by blocking specific receptor binding sites in the gut, thus minimizing infection.
To test the effect of Biomin C-EX and Biominr IMBO (probiotic, immune modulatory substances & prebiotic) on the productivity of broiler chickens and feed conversion ratio and to also test the influence of the preparation on the digestibility, including digestion processes in broilers.
Design and Setting: 600 broiler chickens of Strain Ross 208 were obtained.
The birds were divided into 2 groups, 300 chickens per group. The broiler chickens were kept on dry litter and water and feed given ad libitum. The experimental group contained probiotic additive. The dosage of Biomin C-EX was 20g/1000 heads (spray plus via drinking water) and Biominr IMBO was mixed 1.5 kg/ton of feed. Body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, percent mortality, digestibility of feed nutrients, and concentrations of volatile fatty acids and ammonia were measured. The duration of the experiment was 35 days. Results: By using a combination of probiotics, cell wall fragments and prebiotics improvements in BWG, FCR, Mortality and digestibility of feed nutrients such as organic matter, crude fat, crude protein, and crude fiber were observed. Also the presence of Biominr C-EX and Biominr IMBO had a positive influence towards volatile fatty acids and ammonia concentrations. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that applying Biominr C-EX and Biominr IMBO improved the health performance of the animal and showed a positive impact towards the digestion processes.


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8                      7

M. Poormahmood, A. Talebi

Objectives: Susceptibility of birds to pathogenic infection in intensive husbandry system has emphasized on necessity of improvement of innate and specific immune responses of birds. Increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics has caused an interest to focus in substitute of pre-, pro- and nutro-biotics as an alternative to sub-therapeutic antibiotics. The current study investigates the effects of Biomin Imbo as a bio-symbiotic on immune responses to vaccination against IBD in broiler chickens (Ross-308). The results indicate that administration of Biomin Imbo enhanced the antibody responses to infectious bursal disease in vaccinated chickens, but the difference was not significant. Materials & Methods: One hundred eighty broiler chicks were allocated to three groups (three replicates/group): (A) vaccinated +feed containing biomin Imbo, (B) vaccinated+feed without Biomin Imbo, and (C) control (unvaccinated+feed without Biomin Imbo). Synbiotic of biomine imbo (ETOUK, Biomine GmbH, Austria ) was supplemented in feed. Vaccination was carried out based on optimal timing of maternal antibody level on 16-days-old using D78 vaccine (Intervet) by eye-drop rout and repeated on day 24. ELISA (IDEXX kits) test was used to determine antibody titers of the samples taken on day-0 and weekly intervals. SPSS was used for analysis. Results & Conclusion: As shown in figure 1, maternal antibody titer against IBD were decreased gradually and reached to nearly breakthrough level on day 16, which vaccination took place as recommended based on Doventer s formula. Antibody titer of the chickens in both groups A and B increased by day 28 of age, while those of the chickens group C continuously decreased indicati g of uncontaminated environmental conditions. Antibody titer of vaccinated chickens in group fed with biomine imbo reached to 2325 (ELISA, IDDEX) on day 42 of age while those of group B reach to 2047 (ELISA, IDDEX) which were lower than those of group A, but the difference was not significant. Although, we did not come across with research report concerning directly on effect of biomin imbo on antibody titer against IBD, but some reports indicated that prebiotics (Oliveria et al., 2009) improve antibody responses against IBD. There are also some reports that probiotics improve antibody responses in general (Panda et al., 2000; Cross., 2002; Kabir et al., 2004). In conclusion, supplementation of Biomine imbo inhaces the immune response following vaccination but the difference is not significant.

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Seyed Mozafar Mehdizadeh, Abolfal Zarei, Morteza Mokhtari

Objectives:An experiment was conducted under completely randomized design to study the comparative effect of different level of feed additives such as(garlic powder and chicory powder), probiotic and antibiotic on performance, immune response, carcass characteristics and blood biochemistry of broiler chicks. Materials & Methods: 1140 thirteen day old Cobb chicks were randomly distributed into six experimental diets with three replicates (except treatment with probiotic had four replicates) with feed and water ad libitum for 22 days. The experimental diets were as follows: 1-Basal diet (without feed additives), 2- Basal diet + 1.5% garlic powder, 3- Basal diet + 1.5% chicory powder, 4- Basal diet + 1.5% garlic powder, + 1.5% chicory powder, 5- Basal diet + Antibiotic (virginiamycin) 20ppm/kg feed, 6- Basal diet + probiotic (Biomin Imbo) 0.1%, Performance of birds were such as, body weight, feed consumption and feed efficiency were recorded through out the experimental periods. At the age of 28 days, two birds rom each replicate were selected randomly and blood was collected to study the blood parameters and carcass traits. Results & Conclusion: As the result revealed, feed additives did not affect body weight through out the experimental period. Numerically, the higher and the lower body weight were observed in groups with diets containing probiotic and garlic powder respectively. The higher and the lower feed intake were in groups with basal diet and diet containing 1.5% garlic powder (p<0.05). Significantly feed efficiency were Improved by supplementing diets with medicinal plants (p<0.05). Nevertheless, best feed efficiency was observed in chicks which had diets included with probiotics. Supplementations of diets with different feed additives did not affect carcass percentages. Where as, diets supplemented with garlic and chicory powder increased breast muscles significantly (p<0.05). Chicory and antibiotics in diet reduced abdominal fat contents (p<0.05). Though, probiotic had an increasing trend on abdominal ats and cholesterol too (p<0.05).






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10                      9

Karimian E, Ghahri H

Objectives: probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic consortium or direct-fed microbial (DF M) is a live-microbial food supplement that improves health, in broilers and other animals. DFM colonization can prevent attachment of the pathogens to the gastrointestinal epithelium. Mechanisms by which DFM operate, collectively called “competitive exclusion”, includes spatial exclusion, micro-environmental alterations, production of toxic compounds, or stimulation of the immune system, and epithelial barrier integrity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the supplementation of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic for a period of 42d on immune status of broilers. Materials & Methods: three hundred thirty six1-d-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly distributed into 7 groups with 4 replicate pens. A corn-soybean based diet was used as the basal diet (control). The basal diet was supplemented with probiotic (150, and 200 g of protexin® /ton of the starter diets and 100 and 150 g/ton of the grower diets), rebiotic (500, and 1000 g of technomos®/ton of the starter and grower diets) and synbiotic (Biomin IMBO®: 1000 and 1250 g/ton of the starter and 500 and 750 g/ton of the grower diets). Results & Conclusion: The antibody (ab) titers against newcastle disease virus (NDV) were significantly (P< 0.01) increased by the dietary inclusion of either prebiotic (1000 g/ton), and synbiotic (500, and 750 g/ton) at 42days of age as compared to the control and probiotic-fed broilers. Moreover, a slight improvement in immune status was observed at 35days of age in broilers fed the probiotic 100 g/ton) compared with control birds (P < 0.05). An improvement of immune status was detected by densely populated immunocompetent cells in the lamina propria and submucosa of ileum in prebiotic and synbiotic-supplemented chicks. Supplementation of technomos® at 0/1%, and Biomin IMBO ® at /05% and /075%, in the diet had positive effects on immune status of broilers. Increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics in humans has caused a increase in public and governmental interest in eliminating sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics in livestock. An alternative approach to sub-therapeutic antibiotics in livestock is the use of probiotic microorganisms, prebiotic substrates that enrich certain bacterial populations, or synbiotic combinations of prebiotics and probiotics. Therefore, this indicates an enhancement effect of prebiotic and synbiotic on the immune system of broilers.

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Golzadeh SH, Karevan F, Esmaeilnejad B, Golzadeh A

For several decades, antibiotic in prophylactic doses have been used in poultry diet to improve animal performance and reduced medication costs. Due to bacterial resistance and occurrence of residues of antibiotic in meat, there is interest in finding alternative to antibiotic for poultry production. In this study we investigated the effects of addition of synbiotic on performance of Ross 308. Material & Method: A total 60000 unsexed, one day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to one of two dietary treatment for six week. Statical analyses were cnoducted with SPSS. The dietary treatment were 1.control(n: 20000) and 2. Basal diets supplement with synbiotic, Biomin IMBO®( n: 40000) (1.5 k/ton in starter, 1 k/ton in grower, 0/5 k/ton in finisher). Total body weight, FCR( Food Conversion Rate) and EEP( European Efficency Factor) was evaluated on 42 d-old. The highest body weight observed in synbiotic group, which was significantly( p< 0/05) higher than control group. The FCR in synbiotic and ontrol group was 1.81 and 1.93 respectively. The EEP in synbiotic group was 294 and in control group was 271. Result and Conclusion: The result of present study reaveled that use of synbiotic have higher performance in Ross 308 broiler chicken.















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