2                      1

حسن قهري، محمود شیوازاد، پرویز فرهومند، جاوید اقبال، مهدي نجف زاده

جهت بررسی تاثیر سطوح مختلف اسیدهاي آلی (مکمل حاوي اسید پروپیونیک و اسید فرمیک) بر عملکرد جوجه هاي گوشتی، طرح کاملا تصادفی در چهار سطح (صفر، 5/0، 0/1 و 5/1 درصد در جیره) و سه تکرار که جمعا 12 واحد آزمایشی را تشکیل می داد و با د ر نظر گرفتن 16 قطعه در هر واحد آزمایشی، جمعاً بر روي 192 قطعه جوجه گوشتی انجام پذیرفت. تجزیه وتحلیل آماري داده ها با استفاده از بسته نرم افزاري ماستات-سی مقایسه میانگین ها از طریق آزمون دانکن انجام پذیرفت. تفاوت معنی داري د ر دوره هاي مختلف از نظر میزان مصرف خوراك در بین تیمارهاي آزمایشی مشاهده نگردید. اما افزایش وزن بدن در طی دوره آغازین در بین تیمارها تفاوت معنی داري داشت. علیرغم اینکه با افزایش سطح استفاد ه از اسیدهاي آلی در دوره رشد و کل دوره (42- 0 روزگی) افزایش وزن بدن بهبود یافته بود اما این تفاوت معنی دار نبود. همچنین تفاوت معنی داری از نظر تبدیل غذایی د ر طی دوره هاي مختلف در بین تیمارها وجود داشت و استفاده از اسیدهاي آلی باعث کاهش پی اچ در دوازدهه گردید. هزینه تغذيه ایی به ازای هر کیلوگرم افزایش وزن بدن و همچنین فاکتور کارایی عملکرد در بین تیمارها تفاوت معنی داری داشت. در نهایت طبق نتایج این مطالعه، افزودن 5/0 درصد از این مکمل در جیره جوجه های گوشتی توصیه می گردد.



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Luckstadt, C., N. Şenkoylu, H. Akyurek, A. Agma

The potential of organic acids in feed preservation, protecting feed from microbial and fungal destruction, but also directly in the animal nutrition is already known for decades and was proven in uncounted laboratory and field trials. However, the knowledge of effects from synergistically acting organic acid blends of high biological value together with organic or inorganic physiologically active carriers to the animal is relatively new. A trial with broiler chicken over a period of 35 days was carried out with an organic acid blend on an inorganic carrier (3 kg inclusion rate per ton of feed) against a control without an acidifier. Results proved significantly (p < 0.05) the growth enhancing action of the acidifier. From this results it can be concluded that acidifiers containing well balanced acid combination can increase the growth of broiler chicken under controlled conditions without the use of anti-biotic growth promoters.



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4                      3

N. Simsek, I. Can, A. Karadeniz, A. Kara and R. Gumus

The present study aimed to evaluate immunohistochemical changes of mucinand serotonin-releasing cells in the small intestine induced by various dietary supplementations in quails. A total of 300 one day old quails were randomly divided into 5 equal groups according to the 5 weeks long supplementation: whereas birds of the group 1 were fed with basal diet, the others were supplemented with prebiotics/probiotics (1 g/kg food, group 2), with organic acids (4 g/kg food, group 3), with both prebiotics/probiotics and organic acids (same dosages, group 4) or with antibiotic (active form of avilamycin, 10 mg/kg food, group 5). Weight growth and food intake were not modified among groups. Density of goblet cells were markedly increased mainly in ileum in all supplemented groups except for the group 5 and in birds co-treated with prebiotics/probiotics and organic acids, the effect was maximal and extended to duodenum and jejunum whereas in antibiotic treated quails the goblet cells were dramatically depleted. In parallel, the number of intestinal serotonin positive (closed and opened types) cells has significantly declined in all supplemented birds: cell depletion was highest in antibiotic supplemented birds and lowest in those supplemented with only organic acids. Additionally, the villus height / crypt depth ratio was also diminished in ileum from birds receiving antibiotic, prebiotics/probiotics alone or combined to organic acids. These results show that antibiotic and other dietary additives alter differently intestinal morphology and especially density of mucin- and serotonin-releasing cells.

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Fallah R. and H. Rezaei

This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with the fermacto prebiotic and Biotronic S.E (an acidifier) on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens. 240 day old Ross 308 broilers were equally distributed into 24 floor pens and reared for 42 days. A basal diet was formulated according to the recommendations of NRC for starter (1 to 21 days) and grower (22 to 42 days) periods and considered as control diet. Four tested diets were formulated as listed control diet (without any additives), fermacto prebiotic, Biotronic S.E (an acidifier) and mixture of fermacto prebiotic plus Biotronic S.E. Six replicate were used for each treatment. The results of this study indicate that addition of fermacto prebiotic and Biotronic S.E increased the final body weight, significantly (p˂0.05). Furthermore, addition of additives decreased abdominal fat, triglycerides, serum cholesterol and increased carcass weight. Addition of fermacto prebiotic plus Biotronic S.E had the best performance, carcass characteristics and lowest serum cholesterol on broiler chickens at 42 day of age.





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6                      5

Senkoylu, N., H. E. Samli, H. Akyürek, A. Agma

Day-old male 240 chicks of a Ross 308 strain were used to test the effects of an commercial organic acid (OA), Biotronic SE Forte, on broiler performance and gut histomorphology. OA preparation was supplemented at 3 g/kg level into starter and finisher broiler diets of standard (NRC, 1994) or lower (approximately 10%) nutrient density (ND). Thus, the experiment was set up according to 2x2 factorial design with 6 reps of 10 birds allocated in each. BWG and FCR of broiler chicks both at 21 and 35 d experimental periods were significantly (P<0.001) improved by OA supplementation regardless of the diets ND. OA supplementation increased BWG by approximately 20% in 21 and 12% in 35 d experimental periods. FCR value dropped from 1.276 to 1.105 and from 1.263 to 1.129 in the two group fed with standart or lower ND, respectively. Proventriculus and heart weights were significantly decreased by dietary treatments too. Ileal viscosity was significantly (P<0.028) affected by ND while the viscosity in feed was significantly (P<0.035) effected by OA supplementation. Villi height was significantly (P<0.015) increased by OA supplementation both in the standart or lower ND groups. This effect was better pronounced in lower ND fed group and the rate of the increase was 20%. In the case of villi depth interaction effect was observed, while significant drop in the group fed with standart ND, only slight increase was seen in the group fed with lower ND. Organic acid supplementation consistently decreased crypt depth (from 120.1 to 113.1 and from 117.3 to 96.3 μm) irrespective of ND. No significant effect could be observed by dietary treatments with respect to thickness of ileal muscle layer.

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N. Roth1, M. Rouault, R. Urbaityte, S. Masching, T. Applegate

The efficacy of an acidifier in the liquid form and the same composition on the special carrier Sequential Release Medium (SRM) (Biotronic SE forte) was investigated with broilers. Ross broilers (612) were divided into three treatment groups with 8 replicate pens per treatment. One group received 3 kg of the liquid formic and propionic acids per ton of feed, the second group was fed the same combination on SRM and the third group did not recive any feed additives. Chicks were kept in stressing conditions: reduced ventilation, recycled litter, and higher temperature (>29○C) from hatch to 24 days of age.

Birds fed acids in a liquid form were numerically 3.2% heavier in comparison to the control group (P>0.05), while the group fed acids on SRM were 4.9% heavier than control (P<0.05). European Production Efficiency Factor (EPEF) was improved by 15% (P>00.05) and by 21% (P<0.05) in birds fed the organic acids in liquid form or on SRM, respectively. In conclusion, acids on SRM carrier improved performance of broilers better than acids in the liquid form in less than optimal environmental conditions.





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8                      7

Senkoylu N, Samli H. E., Kanter M., Agma A

Day-old male chicks were used to test the effects of a combination of formic and propionic acids (CFP) added to wheat- and barley-based diets on the performance and gut histomorphology of broilers. The CFP, containing formic and propionic acids based on an inorganic phyllo-silicate carrier, was added to starter and grower broiler diets of standard (NRC, 1994) or lower nutrient density (LND) using different levels of wheat and barley. Body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broiler chicks were significantly (P < 0.001) improved by CFP supplementation at 21 days of age regardless of nutrient density (ND). However, at 35 days of age CFP addition significantly (P < 0.001) increased BWG and FCR. Proventriculus weight was also significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Ileal viscosity was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by ND which was associated with wheat and barley contents, whereas feed viscosity was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by CFP supplementation. Villus height was significantly (P < 0.05) increased by the CFP supplementation. In the case of villus width, an interaction effect was observed: there was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the group fed the standard ND diet, but only a numerical decrease in the group fed the LND diet compared to control group. No significant effect of dietary treatment on the thickness of the lamina muscularis mucosae could be detected.

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Nataliya Roth, Thomas Germ, Alfred Klimitsch, Renata Urbaityte, Sabine Nitsch

The inhibitory effect of acids on bacterial growth has long been used to preserve feed from spoilage. The use of organic acids as acidifiers for swine and poultry is also well known. In the present study the antimicrobial activities of formic and propionic acids and their combination were investigated in vitro on E.coli and Salmonella typhimurium, as these pathogens cause problems in animal production. The combination of acids was more effective than the effect of individual acids together. The reason of the synergy between organic acids blends can be the combination of acid with a low pKa, which reduces the pH of the environment of bacterial cells and acid with a high pKa and low molecular weight to ensure an antimicrobial effect inside the cell.

The efficacy of the combination of formic and propionic acid ( Biotronic® SE fort) in vivo was investigated on the performance of broilers in Center of Applied Animal Nutrition , Austria . Body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broiler chicks were significantly (P˂0.001) improved by the supplementation of a blend of acids at the dosage 3 kg/t of feed.



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10                      9

S. Cakir, M. Midilli, H. Erol, N. Simsek, M. Cinar, A. Altintas, H. Alp, L. Altintas, O. Cengiz, A. Antalyali

The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of Biomin®IMBO (combination of probiotic, prebiotic, phytogenic substances and cell wall fragments), of Biotronic (combination of formic and propionic acid based on an inorganic phyllosilicate carrier), of a combination of the Biomin® IMBO and Biotronic and of an antibiotic, avilamycin, as feed additives on the growth performance, several serum parameters and digestive villus height of quails. A total of 300 1-day-old Japanese quail chicks were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups with 4 replicates of 15 birds per replicate. The experimental design consisted of 5 dietary treatments: 1) a control diet without supplementation; 2) a diet with Biomin®IMBO at a level of 0.1 kg/100 kg feed; 3) a diet with Biotronic at a level of 0.4 kg/100 kg feed; 4) a diet with a Biomin®IMBO and Biotronic combination at levels given above; 5) a diet with avilamycin at a level of 10 mg/kg feed. Birds consuming diet supplemented with Biomin®IMBO, Biotronic and the combination of Biomin®IMBO and Biotronic, had a significantly (P<0.05) higher duodenal villus height. Single use of Biomin®IMBO and Biotronic also caused significantly higher jejunal (P<0.05) villus height. No significant differences in serum parameters were found among groups according to dietary supplements. No beneficial effect of dietary supplements on growth performance, feed intake, feed efficieny and absolute and proportional organ weights could be observed. The beneficial effects of such supplements could be more evident in other circumstances, like stress.

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Celik, K., I. E. Ersoy, A. Uzatici, and M. Erturk

The experiment described evaluated the effect of a commercial in-feed preparation (Biotronic® SE) involving a mixture of organic acids and salts on California turkey chicks performance. In these experiments, 1-d-old commercial white turkey poults were placed into battery brooders and were given turkey starter feed and water ad libitum. Biotronic ® SE had very small effect on the body weight gain (BWG) when included in the feed and live bird performance was not adversely affected by feeding up to 2.0%. from 0 to 60 days as based groups.












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6                      11

Samli H. E., G. Sirci, J. Lorenzo Bermejo, F. Koc, A. Agma Okur, and N. Senkoylu

The present study investigated the relationship between addition of a commercial organic acid mixture to feed and feed microbiology. Feedstuffs’ composition and duration, temperature and humidity of feed storage were taken into account. The evaluated organic mixture contained formic acid, ammonium formate, propionic acid, ammonium propionate and inorganic phyllosilicate carrier. Microbiological changes were investigated in five types of feed using a 2×2×2 factorial design: organic acid addition (with/without), conditions of storage (228C and 57% relative humidity (HR)/418C and 65% HR) and storage duration (30/60 days). Supplementation of the organic acid mixture has positive effect on feed microbiology.







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D. Yesilbag and I. Colpan

The present experiment was carried out to determine the effects of dietary organic acid supplementation (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 %) on performance (body live weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, and egg production), egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. A total of 20 week old 180 Lohmann LSL white layer hens which were divided into 4 groups each containing 45 hens. The hens were fed with diets (17% crude protein and 2800 kcal/kg metabolic energy) supplemented with 0% (control group), 0.5% (group I), 1.0% (group II), 1.5% (group III) organic acid mixture (formic and propionic acids, and their ammonium salts) during 18 weeks. The dietary organic acid supplementation did not significantly affect growth performance (body weight, food consumption) and egg quality parameters. But this treatment markedly improved the egg production, by accelerating the laying capacity and prolonging the laying period in 24-28 week old and 36-38 week old hens respectively and the feed efficiency at a lesser extend. Serum total protein (p<0.01) and albumin concentrations (p<0.05) as well as AST activity (p<0.05) were significantly increased, whereas the other tested serum parameters (ALT activity and cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride, VLDL and total lipid concentrations) were unaffected. From these results, it was concluded that dietary supplementation with organic acids and their salts could be used in layer hens with benefit on egg production and protein metabolism efficiency.

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